TOZAL® goes beyond the AREDS 2 formula to support ocular health with a combination of Taurine, Omega-3 from fish oil, Zinc, Antioxidants, Lutein/Zeaxanthin, Vitamins A, B6, D3, and Folic Acid. [11▵]

TOZAL’s name says it all:

Zinc Picolinate

Taurine is an amino acid that protects the photoreceptor cells of the retina allowing the optic nerve to process light. [1]

  • Omega-3 fatty acid is an essential component of cell membranes in the retina and optic nerve. [2]
  • The triglyceride form may have an increased absorbability and is comparable to the naturally occurring form found in fish. [3]
  • Some studies show that Omega-3 may reduce the instances of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by up to 30%.
  • While the AREDS 2 formulation includes 80 mg of Zinc, the study actually found that 25 mg is just as effective in a supplement targeting age-related eye concerns. [4]
  • Zinc picolinate is absorbed to a higher degree than other forms of zinc. [4]
  • Antioxidants fight free radicals to help prevent cellular damage. [5,7]
  • Vitamin A (as Retinyl Palmitate)- Helps process night vision and acts in combination with other antioxidants, such as vitamin C and vitamin E, which may help decrease the progression of AMD. [8]
  • B-Complex (B6 & Folic Acid)- B-Complex vitamins may assist in the reduction of homocysteine levels. [9]
  • Vitamin D3- Adequate vitamin D levels may prevent AMD in people with a high genetic risk. [10]

These carotenoids are found in the retina and may help protect against high-energy blue and ultraviolet light. [6]

Support your ocular health with TOZAL

TOZAL - Product Bottle


AREDS stands for Age-Related Eye Disease Study. AREDS researchers published in 2001 that a nutritional supplement with the AREDS formulation can reduce the risk of developing advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In 2006, the same research group, at NIH’s National Eye Institute began a second study called AREDS 2 (published in 2013) to determine if they could improve the AREDS formulation. [11][12]

From a foundational standpoint, AREDS was published in 2001, and AREDS 2 was published in 2013. During the 12-year gap between the studies, the knowledge base surrounding how nutrients may mitigate the impact of macular degeneration grew exponentially. [12]

Original AREDS formulation:

  • 500 milligrams (mg) of vitamin C
  • 400 international units of vitamin E
  • 15 mg beta-carotene
  • 80 mg zinc as zinc oxide
  • 2 mg copper as cupric oxide
  • Omega-3

AREDS 2 formulation:

  • 500 milligrams (mg) of vitamin C
  • 400 international units of vitamin E
  • 10 mg lutein and 2 mg zeaxanthin
  • 80 mg zinc as zinc oxide
  • 2 mg copper as cupric oxide

Why change the formulation?
Why add lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids?

Previous studies had found that dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a lower risk of developing advanced AMD. [11]

Why eliminate beta-carotene? 
During the AREDS trial, two large trials funded by the National Cancer Institute found that beta-carotene may increase lung cancer risk among people who smoke. Lutein and zeaxanthin are in the same family of nutrients as beta-carotene and are believed to have important functions in the retina. Therefore, the researchers theorized that lutein/zeaxanthin might be a safer and possibly more effective alternative than beta-carotene.

Why reduce zinc? 
Although zinc was found to be an essential component of the AREDS formulation in the original trial, some nutritional experts recommended a lower dose. [4]

Support your ocular health with TOZAL

TOZAL - Product Bottle
Dr Edward Paul Jr., OD, PhD - TOZAL Article
Dr. Edward Paul Jr.


Dr. Edward Paul Jr.

“A confounding point is the decision by the National Eye Institute (NEI) to leave the dosage of zinc at 80 mg in the AREDS 2 formula. Typically, you want to use the smallest dose you possibly can of any medication that might be effective. TOZAL contains only 25 mg of zinc because this amount has been found to be as effective as 80 mg found in the AREDS 2 formula. It’s surprising, that despite this finding, the NEI still included a higher dose of zinc rather than the lowest, most effective dose.” [12]

“Less surprising is the replacement of beta-carotene with lutein/zeaxanthin. An important component to TOZAL, lutein/zeaxanthin is so new to the market that the nutrients didn’t even exist during AREDS. During AREDS 2, researchers found that not only is lutein/zeaxanthin as effective as beta-carotene, it’s probably more effective.” [12]

“In reality, TOZAL clearly checks all of the boxes as a dietary supplement for complete ocular health and, while formulating the final product, I took the findings of AREDS 2 very seriously. TOZAL® is an AREDS 2-based formulation with some improvements – it has approximately the same amount of vitamin C, and vitamin E with an increased amount of Lutein (15 mg) and Zeaxanthin (3 mg). We reduced the amount of Zinc from 80 to 25 mg and changed to the form of Zinc from oxide to picolinate. TOZAL also includes other key ingredients, such as vitamin A, vitamin D and B-complex. Each ingredient has specific benefits that they bring to the supplement, such as assisting the retina to process low light.” [12]

“Most of the people who walk through my door are suffering from age-related conditions —whether it’s a 45-year-old man who needs reading glasses or a 75-year-old woman who has AMD. There are lifestyle changes that can slow AMD down or speed it up, but this is a chronic, degenerative, age-related disease. And until we find the fountain of youth or figure out how to stop aging, dietary supplements that are modeled after the AREDS 2 research, such as TOZAL, may be our best way forward,” said Dr. Edward Paul Jr. [12]

Support your ocular health
with the dietary supplement that goes beyond

TOZAL - Product Bottle


[1] Huxtable, R. J. (1992, January). Physiological actions of taurine. Physiological Reviews, 72(1), 101-163.

[2] SanGiovanni JP, et al. (2005, January). The role of omega-3 long-chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Prog Retin Eye
Res., 24(1), 87-138.

[3] Alexander, Larry J. (2011, January). Is There a Difference Between Re-esterified
Triglyceride and Ethyl Ester Fish Oil? Advanced Ocular Care, 20-21.

[4] Barrie, S., Wright, J., Pizzorno, J., Kutter, E., & Barron, P. (1987). Comparative
absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans. Agents
Actions, 21(1-2), 223–228.

[5] Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. (2010). Free radicals, antioxidants and
functional foods: Impact on human health. Phcog Rev, 4, 118-26.

[6] The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Research Group*. (2013).
Lutein + Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular
Degeneration The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Randomized
Clinical Trial. JAMA., 309(19), 2005-2015.

[7] For the Public: What the AREDS Means For You. (2013). Retrieved from National
Eye Institute.

[8] Heiting, G. (2017). Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene: Eye Benefits. Retrieved from All
About Vision:

[9] Christen, W. G., Glynn, R. J., Chew, E. Y., Albert, C. M., & Manson, J. E. (2009).
Folic Acid, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 in Combination and Age-related
Macular Degeneration in a Randomized Trial of Women. Archives of Internal
Medicine, 169(4), 335–341.

[10] Millen AE, Meyers KJ, Liu Z, et al. (2015). Association Between Vitamin D Status
and Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Genetic Risk. JAMA Ophthalmol,
133(10), 1171-1179.

[11] For the Public: What the AREDS Means for You. (2018, May 01). Retrieved from

[12] Treating Dry Macular Degeneration with Dietary Supplements: A Conversation with Edward Paul Jr., OD, PhD. (2019, March 22). Retrieved from